References for Bhaskara II

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  1. D Pingree, Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).
  2. Biography in Encyclopaedia Britannica.


  1. R Calinger (ed.), Classics of Mathematics (New Jersey, 1995).
  2. G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).
  3. G G Joseph, The crest of the peacock (London, 1991).
  4. K S Patwardhan, S A Naimpally and S L Singh, Lilavati of Bhaskaracarya (Delhi 2001).


  1. S P Arya, On the Brahmagupta- Bhaskara equation, Math. Ed. 8 (1) (1991), 23-27.
  2. B Chaudhary and P Jha, Studies of Bhaskara's works in Mithila, Ganita Bharati 12 (1-2) (1990), 27-32.
  3. B Datta, The two Bhaskaras, Indian Historical Quarterly 6 (1930), 727-736.
  4. R C Gupta, Bhaskara II's derivation for the surface of a sphere, Math. Education 7 (1973), A49-A52.
  5. R C Gupta, The last combinatorial problem in Bhaskara's Lilavati, Ganita Bharati 18 (1-4) (1996), 14-20.
  6. M G Inamdar, A formula of Bhaskara for the chord of a circle leading to a formula for evaluating sin a, Math. Student 18 (1950), 9-11
  7. A A Krishnaswami Ayyangar, Remarks on Bhaskara's approximation to the sine of an angle, Math. Student 18 (1950), 12.
  8. V Madhukar Mallayya, Arithmetic operation of division with special reference to Bhaskara II's Lilavati and its commentaries, Indian J. Hist. Sci. 32 (4) (1997), 315-324.
  9. V Madhukar Mallayya, Pancarasikadau - the Indian golden rule compound (with special reference to Bhaskara's Lilavati and its commentaries, Gurukula Kangri Vijnana Patrika Aryabhata 1 (1998), 29-50.
  10. V Madhukar Mallayya, Various methods of squaring with special reference to the Lilavati of Bhaskara II and the commentary Kriyakramakari of Sankara and Narayana, Ganita Sandesh 11 (1) (1997), 31-36.
  11. V Madhukar Mallayya and K Jha, Bhaskara's concept of numeration in decuple proportions - earliest reference in Vedas with Yaska's 'Nirukta' throwing light on the notion of succession in enumeration : an anticipation of Peano's axioms, Ganita-Bharati 17 (1-4) (1995), 85-91.
  12. S A Naimpally, Approximate Formula For The Length of a Chord, Ganita Bharati 9 (1987) 57-58.
  13. C-O Selenius, Rationale of the chakravala process of Jayadeva and Bhaskara II, Historia Math. 2 (1975), 167-184.
  14. C-O Selenius, Kettenbruch theoretische Erklarung der zyklischen Methode zur Losung der Bhaskara-Pell-Gleichung, Acta Acad. Abo. Math. Phys. 23 (10) (1963).
  15. S R Sinha, Bhaskara's Lilavati, Bull. Allahabad Univ. Math. Assoc. 15 (1951), 9-16.
  16. D A Somayaji, Bhaskara's calculations of the gnomon's shadow, Math. Student 18 (1950), 1-8.

JOC/EFR November 2000

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